De Novo Advancements in Toxicology and Risk Assessment
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology expresses gratitude to all its elite panel of editorial board members for their continuous efforts, support and encouragement throughout journey of the journal, right from its inception in the year 2018 and congratulates them for making the journal achieve its goals and becoming successful and well-recognized broadcaster of scientific outcomes and perspectives from systematic inquiry into infectious diseases, medicine, and its related field.
Toxicology is a division of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse reactions of chemicals on living organisms. It also studies the harmful effects of chemical, biological and physical agents in biological systems that establishes the extent of damage in living organisms. The relationship among dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage (and whether it is acute or chronic); the route of exposure, the species, age, sex and environment. Toxicologic analysis plays a very crucial role in the modern-day investigations. Basic principles of several disciplines like analytical chemistry, biochemistry, epidemiology, pharmacodynamics, pathology, and physiology are applied in such kind of analysis.
Risk Assessment is needed to avoid people from danger who are in working places and to decrease the risks which are happening in the laboratories or workplaces. This help to set out the guidelines to what we should do and not do within a lab for safety purpose. Quantitative risk assessment needs calculations of dual components of risk, the magnitude of the potential loss and the probability that the loss will occur. Risk assessment is the regulation of quantitative or qualitative assessment of risk associated to a well-defined situation and hazard. An acceptable risk is a risk that is tolerated generally because the cost or difficulty of applying an effective counter measure for the related vulnerability goes beyond the expectation of loss. Health risk assessment consists of variations, such as risk as the type and severity of response, with or without a probabilistic context. The agriculture, aerospace, nuclear, rail, military and oil industries have a long history of dealing with risk assessment. Also, food industries, social service, and medical control risks and perform risk assessments on a frequent basis.
Pharmacology is the systematic study of drug action on biological systems. It is the study of the interactions between an active organism and drugs. If substances have therapeutic properties, they are considered as drugs. Pharmacology deals with the study of drugs. In detail, it deals with the properties of drugs, their action, interactions between drug particles and their target sites, the mechanisms by which they elicit pharmacological action. Pharmacological studies range from the effects of chemical agents upon subcellular mechanisms, to those that deal with the potential hazards of pesticides and herbicides, to those that focus on the treatment of major diseases by drug therapy.
Clinical and Applied Toxicology
The relationship between the drug amount and its effects on living organism is commonly known as clinical toxicology. The clinical study that deals with the symptoms, treatments, detection and mechanism will allow the drug concentration in blood. The medicines which are in usage to decrease the disease condition will have common side effects. Clinical toxicology has evolved from applied science progressing in the shadows of more highly defined areas of toxicology. Clinical toxicology is the branch of science which deals with the elimination of poisonous substances or harmful chemicals from the body of any organism. Clinical toxicologists are the people who are expertized in the field of detoxification. Medical toxicology is a part of the toxicology and deals with the removal of the harmful toxins from the body. The poisoning may be intentional or unintentional, but the adverse effects may lead to the lethal damage to the organism. Both clinical and medical toxicologists play an important role in detoxification.
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology
Experimental toxicology plays a crucial role in discovering the new drugs. The different types of studies that include in the process of experiment are in vivo and in vitro. These studies help in bringing up the new drugs to the world. Environmental toxicology is the multidisciplinary branch of science with links the environment and the toxic chemicals. Experimental toxicology supports in development, manufacture, quality, effectiveness and safety testing of drugs, foodstuffs and other substances or products.
Human Health Toxicology
To observe the clinical effects of environmental toxicants on living organisms by collecting and analyzing scientific data and identifying ways of detection and diagnosis. Human and health toxicology deals with the study of the adverse effects caused to the body by xenobiotic substances. It contains a wide range of disciplines such as Organ systems toxicity, lung toxicology et al.,
The management of acute poisonings, emergencies such as accidental poisonings, suicidal attempts with various pharmaceutical drugs etc. are dealt under human toxicology. Several analytical toxicological principles are implemented in it. Techniques like gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography different kinds of extractions are employed for these studies. Health Toxicology deals with the identification of potential health hazards associated with the exposure to different chemicals and biological agents, their identification, assessment and steps to curtail them. It’s the toxicological science which deals with the structure-function relationship, human and health sways of the chemicals such as PCBs etc. Other trace elements in human nutrition and health are also assessed.
Forensic Toxicology mostly deals with the study of alcohol, licit and illicit drugs and other poisonous substances. It studies the characteristics of the substances such as their chemical structure and properties. Various aspects like the absorption, distribution and elimination are also studied. Forensic toxicologists carry out the tests by taking samples if urine, blood, hair etc. The study of chemical composition, preparations and identification of a drug, alcohol and poisons is known as forensic toxicology. This helps in laboratories sample testing bodily fluids and tissue samples. The toxicology report can provide important evidence of a chemical compound present in an individual and if the amount of those substances is reliable with a therapeutic dosage or is above the required dose those results in toxic.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology is using Editorial Tracking System to maintain quality and transparency to the author in the peer-review process. Review processing will be performed by the editorial board members of the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology or by Reviewers (outside experts in the field). Two independent reviewer’s approval (Minimum reviewer’s approval) followed by editor approval is obligatory for acceptance of any manuscript excluding an editorial.
On the occasion of its 3 years, Successful Journey, Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology decided to provide a partial waiver on its article processing charges to promote quality research from across the nations of the globe to encourage the latest research in the field of Infections, Diseases and Medicine. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology also planning to release a special issue on its new approaches.
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