Aspects of Environmental Toxicology
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology is using Editorial Tracking System to maintain quality and transparency to the author in the peer-review process. Review processing will be performed by the editorial board members of the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology or by Reviewers (outside experts in the field). Two independent reviewer’s approval (Minimum reviewer’s approval) followed by editor approval is obligatory for acceptance of any manuscript excluding an editorial.
Environmental toxicology is a multidisciplinary field of science concerned with the study of the harmful effects of various chemical, biological and physical agents on living organisms. Toxicity can also vary with the organism's placement within its food web. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism stores toxicants in fatty tissues, which may eventually establish a trophic cascade and the biomagnification of specific toxicants. Biodegradation releases carbon dioxide and water as by-products into the environment. This process is typically limited in areas affected by environmental toxicants. Harmful effects of such chemical and biological agents as toxicants from pollutants, insecticides, pesticides, and fertilizers can affect an organism and its community by reducing its species diversity and abundance. Such changes in population dynamics affect the ecosystem by reducing its productivity and stability.
Toxins affect the environment and organisms in a variety of ways, from having little negative impact on certain abiotic factors or resistant organisms to killing animals and destroying major components of ecosystems. The extent of damage depends on the type and structure of the toxic substance such as the age, the size, and the species of the organism and the temperature and the physical and chemical characteristics of the environment. The assessment of toxicity at the levels of whole organism, cell, and gene is one way by which researchers are able to determine how much of a toxin an organism can be exposed to before adverse effects set in. Different assays are used for toxicity assessment, including acute and sub-acute toxicity assays, sediment toxicity assays, and geno toxicity assays. Heavy metals like mercury, lead and cadmium found in food sources, such as fish can also have harmful effects.
Chemical substances can take a variety of forms. They can be in the form of solids, liquids, dusts, vapors, gases, fibers, mists and fumes. A chemical can also change forms. Sometimes chemicals are in a form that can’t be seen or smelled, so they can’t be easily detected. An acute effect of a contaminant is one that occurs rapidly after exposure to a large amount of that substance. A chronic effect of a contaminant results from exposure to small amounts of a substance over a long period of time. In such a case, the effect may not be immediately obvious. Chronic effect is difficult to measure, as the effects may not be seen for years. Long-term exposure to cigarette smoking, low level radiation exposure, and moderate alcohol use are all thought to produce chronic effects.
The effect of a certain chemical on an individual depends on the dose of the chemical. A dose that is lethal to 50% of a population of test animals is called the lethal dose-50% or LD-50. Determination of the LD-50 is required for new synthetic chemicals in order to give a measure of their toxicity. A dose that causes 50% of a population to exhibit any significant response like hair loss or stunted growth is referred to as the effective dose-50% or ED-50. Some toxins have a threshold amount below which there is no apparent effect on the exposed population.
On the occasion of its 3 years, Successful Journey, Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology decided to provide a partial waiver on its article processing charges to promote quality research from across the nations of the globe to encourage the latest research in the field of Infections, Diseases and Medicine. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology also planning to release a special issue on its new approaches.